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Alexandrine Parakeet, Psittacula eupatria, นกแก้วโม่ง

The Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria), also known as the Alexandrine parrot, is a medium-sized parrot in the genus Psittacula of the family Psittacidae. It is named after Alexander the Great, who transported numerous birds from Punjab to various European and Mediterranean countries and regions, where they were prized by the royalty, nobility and warlords.

The Alexandrine Parakeet has established feral populations in Spain, England, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Iran, Hong Kong, and Japan, where it lives alongside feral populations of its close relative, the Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri).

Alexandrine Parakeet, Psittacula eupatria, นกแก้วโม่ง

Range map
Range map from www.oiseaux.net - Ornithological Portal Oiseaux.net
www.oiseaux.net is one of those MUST visit pages if you're in to bird watching. You can find just about everything there

Alexandrine Parakeet, Psittacula eupatria, นกแก้วโม่ง
Alexandrine Parakeet range map
By Izvora - Own work, Public Domain, Link

Taxonomy and etymology
The Alexandrine Parakeet was first described by French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson as Psittaca Ginginiana or "La Perruche de Gingi" (The Gingi's Parakeet) in 1760; after the town of Gingee in southeastern India, which was a French outpost then. The birds may, however, merely have been held in captivity there. Carl Linnaeus redescribed the Alexandrine Parakeet in 1766 as Psittacus eupatria.

The genus name Psittacula is a diminutive of the Latin word psittacus meaning "parrot", and the specific name eupatria is derived from the Ancient Greek words eu- meaning "well" and patriá meaning "descent".

Phylogeny
Genetic analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of Psittacula parakeets has shown that the Alexandrine Parakeet diverged from the lineage that gave rise to the Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and the Mauritius parakeet (Psittacula eques) about 5 million years ago.

Length: 56 to 62 cm from the top of the head to the tip of the tail
Wingspan:
Weight: 198 - 258 g
Longevity:
Distinctive Feature

• Brownish-red shoulder patch
Similar Species



From opus at www.birdforum.net
Female / Male / Juvenile

• Females and immatures lack the black neck ring, pink nape band and are duller.

From opus at www.birdforum.net


Description
The Alexandrine Parakeet is one of the largest parakeets, measuring 56 to 62 cm from the top of the head to the tip of the tail and weighing 200 to 300 g. The tail measures 28 to 35 cm. It is predominantly green with a light blue-grey sheen on the cheeks and nape (back of the neck), yellow-green abdomen, red patch on either shoulder and massive red beak with yellow tips.

The upperside of the tail passes from green at the top to blue further down, and is yellow at the tip. The underside of the tail is yellow.

Adults are sexually dimorphic. Adult males have a black stripe across their lower cheeks and pink band on their nape. Adult females lack both a black stripe across their lower cheeks and a pink band on their nape. The young are similar in appearance to adult females but have shorter tails.

Subspecies
Five subspecies of the Alexandrine Parakeet are currently recognized. Information on the distribution and plumage differences of the different subspecies is given below.

Nomenclature

In zoology, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th edition, 1999) accepts only one rank below that of species, namely the rank of subspecies. Other groupings, "infrasubspecific entities" do not have names regulated by the ICZN.

Such forms have no official ICZN status, though they may be useful in describing altitudinal or geographical clines, pet breeds, transgenic animals, etc. While the scientific name of a species is a binomen, the scientific name of a subspecies is a trinomen - a binomen followed by a subspecific name. A tiger's binomen is Panthera tigris, so for a Sumatran tiger the trinomen is, for example, Panthera tigris sumatrae.

In botany, subspecies is one of many ranks below that of species, such as variety, subvariety, form, and subform. The subspecific name is preceded by "subsp." or "ssp.", as Schoenoplectus californicus ssp. tatora (totora). A botanical name consists of at most three parts. An infraspecific name includes the species binomial, and one infraspecific epithet, such as subspecies or variety.

Nominotypical subspecies and subspecies autonyms
In zoological nomenclature, when a species is split into subspecies, the originally described population is retained as the "nominotypical subspecies" or “nominate subspecies”, which repeats the same name as the species. For example, Motacilla alba alba (often abbreviated Motacilla a. alba) is the nominotypical subspecies of the white wagtail (Motacilla alba).

The subspecies name that repeats the species name is referred to in botanical nomenclature as the subspecies "autonym", and the subspecific taxon as the "autonymous subspecies".

Doubtful cases
When zoologists disagree over whether a certain population is a subspecies or a full species, the species name may be written in parentheses.

Thus Larus (argentatus) smithsonianus means the American herring gull; the notation within the parentheses means that some consider it a subspecies of a larger herring gull species and therefore call it Larus argentatus smithsonianus, while others consider it a full species and therefore call it Larus smithsonianus (and the user of the notation is not taking a position).


Subspecies
Five subspecies of the Alexandrine Parakeet are currently recognized. Information on the distribution and plumage differences of the different subspecies is given below.

Subspecies
Distribution
Notes
Nominate Alexandrine Parakeet
(P. e. eupatria)
Western India, South India and Sri Lanka Nominate subspecies
Large Indian parakeet
(P. e. nipalensis)
Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, North India, Central India, East India, Nepal and Bhutan. It is larger than the nominate subspecies and more greyish-green. The back of the head and cheeks are washed with blue. Adult males have a broader black stripe across the lower cheek.
Large Burmese parakeet
(P. e. avensis)
Northeast India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. It has a smaller beak than the nominate subspecies. Males look like P. e. nipalensis, however the neck and underparts are more yellowish and there is a narrow blue stripe on the hindneck.
Large Andaman parakeet
(P. e. magnirostris)
Andaman Islands and Coco Islands. It is slightly larger than the nominate subspecies, and has a larger beak and brighter shoulder patch. Males have a narrow blue stripe above the nape band.
Thai Rose-ringed Parakeet
(P. e. siamensis)
Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. It is smaller than the nominate subspecies and has a paler shoulder patch. It also has a yellowish face and neck. Males look like P. e. avensis, however the back of the head and nape are washed with blue.

Ecology and behaviour
The Alexandrine Parakeet lives in forests, woodlands, agricultural lands and mangrove forests at elevations of up to 900 m. It eats a variety of wild and cultivated seeds, buds, flowers, fruits and nuts. Flocks can cause extensive damage to ripening fruits and crops like maize and jowar. It usually lives in small flocks, but can form larger groups in areas where food is abundant or at communal roosts.

Its calls are usually harsh and loud, and deeper and more powerful than those of the closely related Rose-ringed Parakeet. Calls range from a loud kree-aar or keeak to a resonant gr-aak. It shrieks loudly when alarmed or mobbing predators. Flocks are known to often excitedly vocalize together.

Listen to the Alexandrine Parakeet




Breeding
Alexandrine Parakeets breed from November to April in their native range. They usually nest in tree hollows, but occasionally use tree holes excavated by themselves or cracks in buildings. Females lay 2 to 4 white, blunt oval-shaped eggs, measuring 27 to 34 mm. The average incubation period is 24 days. The chicks fledge at about 7 weeks of age, and are dependent on their parents until 3 to 4 months of age.

Conservation
The Alexandrine Parakeet is listed as near threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) because of its steep population decline due to habitat loss, persecution and excessive capture to cater to the demands of the illegal wildlife trade.

The sale of Alexandrine Parakeets is banned in Pakistan, but they can be found being openly sold in the markets of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Their sale is also banned in India, and yet they are sold in broad daylight in urban bird markets, suggesting that the Indian government is allocating insufficient resources for their protection.

Conservation status
Alexandrine Parakeet, Psittacula eupatria
Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1)
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.


Cultural depictions
Hellenistic mosaic floor panel of an Alexandrine Parakeet, made in the acropolis of Pergamon (near modern Bergama, Turkey) during the middle of the 2nd century BC. Thailand, Mongolia and Iran have issued postage stamps depicting the Alexandrine Parakeet.

Alexandrine Parakeet stamps
Alexandrine Parakeet stamps
Alexandrine Parakeet stamps


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

www.birdforum.net


Sighted: (Date of first photo that I could use) 1 May 2020
Location: Wat Suan Yai, Bangkok


Alexandrine Parakeet, Psittacula eupatria, นกแก้วโม่ง
Alexandrine Parakeet / นกแก้วโม่ง - 1 May 2020 - Wat Suan Yai, Bangkok



PLEASE! If I have made any mistakes identifying any bird, PLEASE let me know on my guestbook



       
                  



                                       

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